CLEE’s EV Equity Initiative seeks to build locally tailored, community driven, and replicable approaches to the development of electric vehicle and mobility infrastructure in underserved communities in California. Working with local government and community partners, the team will conduct local outreach and research to identify policy, legal, financial, and infrastructural barriers to equitable EV deployment and craft roadmaps and build coalitions to address them.
Over the course of this multi-year effort, we will establish partnerships with local governments and stakeholders to advance equitable EV planning processes; conduct mapping exercises to identify highest-priority charger locations based on a range of locally appropriate factors; develop implementation roadmaps, guidebooks, and other resources; propose policy and legislative solutions as appropriate; and support implementation efforts wherever possible.
We are working with Oakland’s Department of Transportation and Sustainability and Resilience Division to accelerate implementation of the city’s Zero Emission Vehicle Action Plan, a comprehensive zero-emission transportation strategy. In 2023, we will support city teams and work with the Greenlining Institute to engage with community stakeholders to tackle early action items in the ZEV plan. We will also provide legal research, mapping, and other strategic support.
We will work with city sustainability, planning, and transportation leaders to identify and address needs across law and policy research, mapping, and agency and stakeholder coordination to build toward a local zero-carbon transportation plan.
Through a grant from UC Berkeley’s Institute for Transportation Studies, we are engaging stakeholders across the city to identify policy barriers and solutions to developing an equitable charging infrastructure program for a small, diverse city with a significant agricultural worker population.
We are working with project partners at UC Berkeley’s Energy and Resources Group to develop map-based resources that can identify high-priority areas and sites for charging infrastructure, based on criteria such as income, demographics, environmental indicators, transit demand and access, electric grid capacity, commercial and public spaces, and more. These resources will inform local planning and investment processes.
Working with project partners at ProspectSV, we will convene experts and stakeholders across public and climate finance, clean mobility planning, charging services, businesses and commercial property owners, and community groups to develop innovative revenue and financing models that can fund affordable charging in high-priority communities.
Working with partner law firms and the Greenlining Institute, we will develop a suite of legal and policy research resources to inform local action plans. These may include a legal guidebook for cities to support charging in priority communities; model ordinances; analysis of existing zero emission vehicle action plans; literature reviews; and more.
Oakland Department of Transportation
Oakland Sustainability and Resilience Division
Orrick, Herrington & Sutcliffe LLP
Sheppard Mullin LLP
UC Berkeley Energy and Resources Group
EV Action Plans and Blueprints
Fresno EV Ready Blueprint (2019)
Policy Reports & Policy Recommendations
EV Charging Infrastructure: Business Models and Cities Case Studies (C40, 2023): Overview of city archetypes in EV charging deployment and case study analysis of seven global cities’ charging business models and policy frameworks.
Gasoline Superusers 2.0 (Coltura, 2023): Analysis of California gasoline consumption by zip code, identifying communities and counties with a high percentage of “superusers” who face long commutes and higher fuel burdens, and making recommendations for policymakers to prioritize these drivers first in the EV transition.
Funding Transportation Electrification in California (CPUC Public Advocates Office, 2022): Analysis of vehicle electrification funding needs with recommendations for revenue sources other than utility ratepayer funds.
Southeastern Community Mobility Roadmap (Pueblo Planning, 2022): Overview of engagement process in Southeastern San Diego that identified community mobility priorities and selected a project for pilot funding through participatory budgeting.
Driving Equity (CLEE, 2022): Analysis of California’s transportation decarbonization strategy, focusing on policies to promote battery electric vehicle adoption. Priority solutions for EV adoption in California’s lower-income communities include increasing existing vehicle rebates to lower upfront purchase prices, creating a subsidized charging payment system, and funding community-based organizations.
Funding San Francisco Climate Action (CLEE, November 2022): Analysis of funding and financing strategies to generate revenue needed to support equitable implementation of San Francisco’s ambitious 2021 emissions reduction plan.
Survey Says: Considerable Interest in Electric Vehicles across Racial, Ethnic Demographics (Consumer Reports, 2022): Survey across racial demographics of overall interest in purchasing an EV, barriers or concerns limiting EV interest, and experience with EVs. Policy recommendations to close demographic gaps in EV ownership.
Increasing Equitable EV Access and Charging (RMI, 2022): Overview of barriers faced by lower-income drivers, examination of the California Clean Cars and Clean Air Act, and state policy recommendations to encourage equitable EV access and optimize beneficial outcomes.
Electric Vehicle Car-Sharing and Secondhand Market Development in Frontline Communities in California and Europe (California Governor’s Office of Planning and Research, 2022): Evaluation of land use policies for EV car-sharing and secondhand programs for “communities experiencing continuing injustice”. Paper presents key barriers, results, and recommendations for EV car-sharing programs and initiatives to facilitate secondary market EV lease/ownership for frontline communities.
Amping Up EV Incentives: Making the Transition to Electrification Faster and More Equitable (Union of Concerned Scientists, 2021): Analysis of improving federal EV incentives to address equity gaps in the car market and restricting eligibility for EV incentive programs including income caps and sales or transaction price caps.
Expanding Access to Electric Vehicles in California’s Low-Income Communities (Journal of Science Policy & Governance, 2021): Overview of the challenges of deploying EVs in California and policy recommendations to expand EV charging infrastructure to low-income communities.
Policies for a Mature, Flourishing & Equitable EV Charging Ecosystem (Global Sustainable Mobility Partnership, 2021): Analysis of policy requirements to address EV charging equitability challenges and overcome barriers to developing a commercial vehicles charging market.
Sustaining Clean Mobility Equity Programs: Equitable Funding for Equitable Mobility (Greenlining Institute, 2021): Evaluation of California’s clean mobility equity programs, results show lack of financial sustainability and stability catering to low-income and disadvantaged communities.
A Perspective on Equity in the Transition to Electric Vehicles (MIT Science Policy Review, 2021): Analysis of electric vehicle buyers finding EV incentives do not incorporate equity and EV charging infrastructure is not equitably dispersed. The playbook highlights 6 standards for equitable investment and 4 components of sustaining clean mobility equity programs.
A Quantitative, Equitable Framework for Urban Transportation Electrification: Oakland, California as a Mobility Model of Climate Justice (Sustainable Cities and Society, 2021): Framework for identifying opportunities for equitable electrification of transportation, including case study of Oakland private and public transportation areas.
Senate Bill 1000 Report: Increasing Access to Electric Vehicle Infrastructure for All (California Energy Commission, 2020): Analysis of EV infrastructure distribution in California by geography, population density, and income levels finding uneven distribution of charging infrastructure across air districts and counties.
Update on Electric Vehicle Adoption across US Cities (The International Council on Clean Transportation, 2020): Assessment of the US EV market in 2019, including developments in charging infrastructure, policy support, and EV uptake. Underlying factors of EV market adoption are mainly charging infrastructure, model availability, and promotion actions.
Low-Income Barriers Study, Part B: Overcoming Barriers to Clean Transportation Access for Low-Income Residents (California Air Resources Board, 2018): Overview of barriers to accessing clean transportation and mobility options for low-income residents and recommendations to overcome barriers such as expanding assessments of resident needs and developing outreach plans.
Mobility Equity Framework: How to Make Transportation Work for People (Greenlining Institute, 2018): Framework for community-centered transportation planning process focused on communities of color and low-income neighborhoods. The proposed mobility equity framework is built on 3 steps and 12 indicators.
Scientific Reports & Data Analyses
Second AB 2127 Electric Vehicle Charging Assessment (California Energy Commission, 2023): State analysis of charging needed to support EV fleet in 2030 and 2035, identifying need of over 2.1 million light-duty and 260,000 heavy-duty chargers by 2035, among a range of scenarios.
Can the Equitable Rollout of Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Be Achieved? (Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 2023): Review of existing EV infrastructure targets around the world and literature on structures to ensure equitable deployment, identifying a need for market intervention to prevent inequitable outcomes.
Driving to Clean Air: Health Benefits of Zero-Emission Cars and Electricity (American Lung Association, 2023): State-by-state analysis of public health and economic benefits of reduced air pollution from a 100% clean vehicle and electricity transition.
Emissions Redistribution and Environmental Justice Implications of California’s Clean Vehicle Rebate Project (PLOS Climate, 2023): Analysis of air quality impacts of California EV rebate program finding that benefits accrued more in non-disadvantaged communities than in DACs, due to disproportionate use of rebates by higher-income residents.
California’s Early Transition to Electric Vehicles: Observed Health and Air Quality Co-Benefits (Science of the Total Environment, 2023): Analysis of co-benefits of early EV transition, regarding air quality and health impacts. Results highlight California’s adoption gap in ZEVs threatens equitable distribution of public health co-benefits.
Toward Social Equity Access and Mobile Charging Stations for Electric Vehicles: A Case Study in Los Angeles (Applied Energy, 2022): Analysis of social equity access and mobile charging stations for EVs, finding equity solutions through prioritized demand and social equity access indices.
Autonomous Vehicle Policies with Equity Implications: Patterns and Gaps (Transportation Research Interdisciplinary Perspectives, 2022): Review of autonomous vehicle policies, finding different categories of policies, including access and inclusion, multimodal transportation, and community wellbeing. Analysis concludes low considerations for people with low incomes and people of color.
AB 2127 Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Assessment (California Energy Commission, 2021): Analysis of charging needs to support California’s plug-in electric vehicles in 2030 outlining the need for aligning EV charging with renewable energy generation, tailoring charging solutions to local and community needs, and prioritizing charging standards and innovation.
Public Electric Vehicle Charger Access Disparities Across Race and Income in California (Transport Policy, 2021): Analysis of public EV charging access disparities in California based on race and income, finding charger access gap in multi-unit dwellings and Black and Hispanic majority-neighborhoods have lower access to public EV chargers.
Public Electric Vehicle Charger Access Disparities Across Race and Income in California (Transport Policy, 2021): Analysis of public EV charger access disparities on race and income in California. Findings include charger access gap in multi-unit dwellings and lower access for Black and Hispanic majority-neighborhoods.
An Early Look at Plug-In Electric Vehicle Adoption in Disadvantaged Communities in California (Transport Policy, 2019): Investigation of EV adoption in disadvantaged communities in California, results conclude lower adoption of new and used EVs in DACs.
Designing Policy Incentives for Cleaner Technologies: Lessons from California’s Plug-In Electric Vehicle Rebate Program (Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, 2017): Analysis of alternative rebate designs for EVs using a vehicle choice model, finding lower income groups are more responsive to rebate dollars. Policy suggestions for re-design of EV rebate programs to achieve greater allocative equity at a lower cost.
Please note that some resources are paywall- or subscription-restricted. CLEE thanks Hayley Lai (UC Berkeley Class of 2024) for her assistance in compiling and maintaining this literature review.
Contact Ted Lamm for more information.