Faculty Profiles

generalcoursesteaching evaluationspublications

Publications by Joseph L. Sax


Legal Control of Water Resources, 3d ed., St. Paul, West Pub. Co. (2000)

Playing Darts With a Rembrandt: Public and Private Rights in Cultural Treasures, Ann Arbor, Univ. of Michigan Press (1999)

Legal Control of Water Resources, 2d ed., St. Paul, West Pub. Co. (1991)

Legal Control of Water Resources, West Pub. Co. (1986)

Mountains Without Handrails: Reflections on the National Parks, Ann Arbor, Univ. of Michigan Press (1980)

Defending the Environment, Alfred A. Knopf, Inc. (1971)

Water Law, Planning and Policy, Bobbs-Merrill (1968)

Water Law: Cases and Commentary, Pruett Press (1965)


Environmental Law, Encyclopedia Americana

"Heritage Preservation as a Public Duty" The Abbe Gregoire and the Origins of an Idea, Michigan Law Review, 88 Mich. L. Rev. 1142

"The History of Water Law in the United States", Water Resources Center Archives, Univ. of Cal. Berkeley, June 2004, Vol. 11, No. 1 (2004)

"Property Rights in a Changing Land", Illinois Jurist, (Spring) at 26 (2004)

"We Don't Do Groundwater: A Morsel of California Legal History", 6 U. Denv. Water L. Rev. 269, Spring (2003)

"Reflections on the Great Lakes", 2d Annual Peter M. Wege Lecture, University of Michigan School of Natural Resources (Nov. 6) (2002)

"Using Property Rights to Attack Environmental Protection", Pace Environmental Law Review, 19 Pace Envtl. L. Rev. 715, Special Edition (2002)

"Comment on John Harte's Paper "Land Use, Biodiversity, and Ecosystem Integrity: The Challenge of Preserving the Earth's Life-Support System", Symposium, Environment 2000-New Issues for a New Century., 27 Ecol. L. Q. 1003 (2001)

"The New Age of Environmental Restoration", 41 Washburn L.J. 1 (2001)

"The Public Trust Doctrine" in Symposium, Managing Hawai'i's Public Trust Doctrine, 24 U. of Haw' L. Rev. 1 (2001)

"The Water Dilemma: Can Californians Bring Management of Their Rivers into Harmony with Today's Needs?", Defenders (The Conservation Magazine of Defenders of Wildlife), Vol. 76, No. 2 (Spring) (2001)

"Public Land Law in the 21st Century", 45 Rocky Mountain Mineral Law Institute, Rocky Mtn. Min. Law Fdn. (1999)

"Perspectives on Ecosystem Management: Closing Remarks", 24 Ecology L.Q. 883 (1997)

"New Departures in the Legal Protection of Biological Diversity: Implementing the Endangered Species Act", 27 Environmental Policy and Law 347, August (1997)

"Using Property Rights to Attack Environmental Protection", 14 Pace Envtl. L. Rev. 1 (1996)

"Proposals For Public Land Reform: Sorting Out The Good, The Bad, and The Indifferent", Hastings College of the Law, 3 West/Northwest 187 (1996)

"Taking 'Takings Rights' Seriously: A Debate on Property Rights Legislation Before the 104th Congress", 9 Administrative Law Journal of the American University 253 (1995)

"Causes of Land Cover Change from a Legal Perspective", Ecological and Social Dimensions of Global Change, Inst. of Int'l. Studies, Univ. Calif. Berkeley (1994)

"Nature and Habitat Conservation and Protection in the United States", 20 Ecology L. Q. 47 (1993)

"Property Rights and the Economy of Nature: Understanding Lucas v. South Carolina Costal Council", 45 Stan. L. Rev. 201 (1993)

"Rights the Inhere in the Title Itself: The Impact of the Lucas Case on Western Water Law", 26 Loy. L.A. L. Rev. 943 (1993)

"Regulating Land and Resources in the Post-Lucas Era: An Overview", 2 Land Use Forum, No. 1, Winter (1993)

"Takings", 5 Constitution 17 (A Journal of the Foundation for the U.S. Constitution No. 2) (Spring/Summer) (1993)

"John K. Yee & Irene Yee v. City of Escondido, Brief of Golden State Mobilehome Owners League", 25 Loy. L.A. L. Rev. 1259 (1992)

"The Constitutional Dimensions of Property: A Debate", 26 Loy. L.A. L. Rev. 23 (1992)

Introduction to Symposium, Minority Cultures, 25 U. Mich. J. L. Reform 539 (1992)

"Property Rights and Public Benefits", Past Meets Future: Saving America's Historic Environments, Wash. DC, The Preservation Press (1992)

"The Fate of Wetlands in the Face of Rising Sea Levels: A Strategic Proposal", 9 UCLA J. Envtl. L. & Pol'y. 143 (1991)

LA FORUM "Enhancing Revelation", 81 Landscape Architecture #3 (March) (1991)

"Is Anyone Minding Stonehenge? The Origins of Cultural Property Protection in England", 78 Cal. L. Rev. 1543 (1990)

"The Law of a Liveable Planet: Searching for Environmental Rights" [in Japanese], 20 Research on Environmental Disruption #2, 2 Autumn (1990)

"Olmsted's Yosemite, A Vision Betrayed", 6 Places, No. 3 (Spring) (1990)

"Thinking Ecologically: Step One for Lawyers", In Brief, Case Western Reserve University, School of Law, No. 48, (Jan.), at 15 (1990)

"The Search for Environmental Rights", Journal of Land Use & Environmental Law, 6 J. Land Use & Env. L. 93 (1990)

"The Limits of Private Rights in Public Waters", 19 Envtl. Law 473 (1989)

"The 1970 International Symposium and Today's Problems", For Truth and Justice in the Minamata Disease Case: Proceedings of the International Forum on Minamata Disease 1988, Japan Keiso Shobo (1989)

"Parks, Wilderness and Recreation", Government and Environmental Politics, Wash., D.C., The Wilson Center Press, Woodrow Wilson Center for Scholars (1989)

"Environmental Law in the Law Schools", XIX Env. Law Reporter News & Analysis, No. 6, June (1989)

"Property Rights in the U.S. Supreme Court: A Status Report", 7 UCLA J. Envtl. L. & Pol'y 139 (1988)

"Inching Toward A Land Ethic: Wildlife Law in Transition", 1987-88 Annual Report, School of Natural Resources, The University of Michigan (1988)

"Protecting Park Resources: A Little-Known Tale", 4 Ranger 17, Journal of the Association of National Park Rangers, (No. 4, Fall) (1988)

"Glacier National Park and Its Neighbors: A Study of Federal Interagency Relations", 14 Ecol.L.Q. 207 (1987)

"Property Rights in the Supreme Court", 3 California Waterfront Age 6 (Summer) (1987)

"Tribute: Memorial to Professor Frank Trelease", XXII Land & Water L. Rev. 295 (1987)

"Introduction to Symposium", 19 U. Mich. J. Law Ref. 797 (1986)

"Review of Epstein, Takings: Private Property and the Power of 79", Eminent Domain, 53 U. Chi. L. Rev. 279-293 (1986)

"The Trampas File", 84 Mich. L. Rev. 1389 (1986)

"L'affaire Bhopal devant les tribunaux americains", 1986, Revue juridique de l'environment, no. 4, at 413 (1986)

"Les risques naturels et technologiques majeurs: aspects de droit americain", 21 Droit et Ville 141, Toulouse, Revue de l'institut des etudes juridiques de l'urbanisme et de la construction) (1986)

"A Model State Water Act for Great Lakes Management: Explanation and Text", Case Western Journal of International Law, 18 Case W. J. Int'l L. 219 (1986)

"Why I Teach Water Law", 18 J. Law Rev., No. 2 (1985)

"Overview: Counterpoint on the Parks", 27 Environment 2 (July/Aug.) (1985)

"Do Communities Have Rights: The National Parks as a Laboratory of New Ideas", 45 Pitt. L. Rev. 499 (1984)

"Eminent Domain", The Guide to American Law, vol. 4, at 285 (West Pub. Co.) (1984)

"Environmental Law", The Guide to American Law, vol. 4, at 328 (West Pub. Co.) (1984)

"Some Thoughts on the Decline of Private Property", 58 Wash. L. Rev. 481 (1983)

"Why We Will Not (Should Not) Sell the Public Lands: Changing Conceptions of Private Property", 1983 Utah L. Rev. 313, No. 2 (1983)

"America's National Parks: An Introductory Essay", Environmental Education Report, vol. 11, No. 2 (Feb./Mar.), at 4 (1983)

"Amnesty", The Guide to American Law, vol. 1, at 239 (West Pub. Co.) (1983)

"In Search of Past Harmony", Natural History Magazine (August) pp. 42-51 (1982)

"Buying Scenery: Land Acquisitions for the National Parks", 1980 Duke Law Journal 709 (1980)

"Liberating the Public Trust Doctrine From Its Historical Shackles", University of California, Davis, 14 Univ. Calif. (Davis) Law Review 185, No. 2 Winter (1980)

"Fashioning a Recreation Policy for Our National Parklands: The Philosophy of Choice and the Choice of Philosophy", 12 Creighton L. Rev. 973 (1979)

"Japanese Jounral 1979", 24 Law Quadrangle Notes, No. 1, Fall (1979)

"Wilderness as an Idea of Freedom", Environmental Law, 7 Env. Law 565, Lewis and Clark Law School, Portland, Oregon (1977)

"Toward a Philosophy for Land Management", Legal Aspects of Wildlands Management, Proceedings of a Conference on Legal Aspects of Wildlands Management Sponsored by the School of Natural Resources, University of Michigan and the Natural Resources Law Working Group of the Society of American Foresters, April (1977)

"Legislative Techniques for Environmental Protection", Hokkaigakuen University, 12 Hokkaigakuen Univ. L. Rev. No. 1 (1976)

"The American Experience with Citizen Initiated Environmental Lawsuits", Man and His Environment, Vol. 2 (Oxford, the Pergamon Press) (1976)

"Helpless Giants: The National Parks and the Regulation of Private Lands", Michigan Law Review, 75 Mich. L. Rev. 239 (1976)

"Environmental Citizen Suits: Three Years' Experience Under the Michigan Environmental Protection Act", Ecology Law Quarterly, University of California, Berkeley, School of Law, Spring (1974)

"The (Unhappy) Truth about NEPA", 26 Oklahoma Law Review 239 (1973)

"Standing to Sue: A Critical Review of the Mineral King Decision", Natural Resources Journal, Vol. 13, January 73, No. 1, p. 76 (1973)

"The Amnesty Problem", 16 Law Quadrangle Notes, Spring (1972)

"Michigan's Environmental Protection Act of 1970: Progress Report", 70 Mich. Law Rev. 1003 (1972)

Legal Strategies for Environmental Quality Decisions, Environmental Quality Analysis: Theory and Method in the Social Sciences, Johns Hopkins Press (1972)

"Takings, Private Property and Public Rights", 81 Yale Law Journal 149 (1971)

"New Direction in the Law", Environmental Law, The Institute of Continuing Legal Education (1971)

"The Public Trust Doctrine in Natural Resource Law: Effective Judicial Intervention", 68 Mich. L. Rev. 471 (1970)

"An Environmental Common Law for Michigan", Law Quadrangle Notes, Spring 1970 Vol. 14, No. 3, University of Michigan (1970)

"Slum Dweller's Guide to Capitol Hill", 12:2 Law Quadrangle Notes 9, University of Michigan Law School, Spring (1968)

"Civil Disobedience: Law and Legitmacy", Sui Juris, Boston College Law School, Dec. 20 (1968)

"Conscience and Anarchy: The Prosecution of War Resisters", Yale Review, LVII Yale Review 481, June (1968)

"Slumlordism as a Tort", 65 Michigan Law Review 869, March (1967)

"Recent Natural Resources Cases", 7:3 Natural Resources Journal 399, University of New Mexico School of Law, July (1967)

"Municipal Water Supply for Nonresidents: Recent Developments and a Suggestion for the Future", 5 Natural Resources Journal 54, May (1965)

"Selling Reclamation Water Rights: A Case Study in Federal Subsidy Policy", 64 Mich. L. Rev. 13, Nov. (1965)

"Problems of Federalism in Reclamation Law", 37 University of Colorado Law Review 37 (1964)

"Takings and the Police Power", Yale Law Journal 36, November (1964)


Review of Owens and Owens, The Eye of the Elephant, 102 Natural History, No. 3, March (1993)

Review of Hydraulic Empire, Norris Hundley, Jr., The Great Thirst: Californians and Water 1770's-1990's, Berkeley University of Calif. Press, 1992, 91, Mich. L. Rev. 1637 (1993)

"An Advocate for Nonpersons", Review of Stone, Earth and Other Ethics: The Case for Moral Pluralism, Natural History, 96 Natural History 60 (August) (1987)

Review of Sacred Sands and Duel for the Dunes, Sierra, The Sierra Club Bulletin, vol. 68, No. 6 (Nov/Dec), at 70 (1983)

Book Review, Westward in Eden, Orion Nature Quarterly Autumn (1982)

"Flaws in Public Citizen No. 1", Review of Water Wasteland by Ralph Nader's Study Group Report on Water Polution by David Zwick and Marcy Benstock, The New Republic, pp. 27-29, Feb. 5 (1972)

Review of "Legacy of Suppression" by Leonard W. Levy, Catholic Univ. Law Review (1961)

"Comments", on Symposium on Labor Relations Law, Claitor's Bookstore, New Orleans, LA (1961)


"Exploring the Meaning of National Parks", Courier, The National Park Service Newsletter, Vol. 2, No. 13

"Review of the Laws Establishing the SWRCB's Permitting Authority Over Appropriations of Groundwater Classified as Subterranean Streatms", California State Water Resources Control Board, No., 0-76-300-0, Final Report, Jan. 10 (2002)

"Public Interests and Common Concerns", Paper Delivered at the Workshop, Legal Tools for World Heritage Conservation, Siena, Italy (2002)

"Backyard Politics", San Francisco Daily Journal, Wed., Feb. 5, at 4 (2002)

"Implementing the Public Trust in Paleontological Resources", Proceedings of the 6th Fossil Resource Conference, Geologic Resources Division, Lakewood, CO (2001)

"Issues in the Watershed Management Movement", Watershed Management: A New Governance Trend, American Bar Association, Section of Environment, Energy and Resources (2001)

"Not So Public: Access to Collections", 1 RBM, A Journal of Rare Books, Manuscripts, and Cultural Heritage 101, #2 (2000)

"Environmental Law and Regulation", Common Law Common Values Common Rights: Essays on Our Common Heritage by Distinguished British and American Authors, American Bar Association/West Group (2000)

"Evolution of the Public Trust Doctrine", The Public Trust Doctrine and Its Application to Protecting Instream Flows: Proceedings of a Workshop, Alaska Dept. of Fish and Game, Div. of Sport Fish, Research and Technical Services (1999)

"Community Rights and the Privatization of Water", Sharing Scarcity: Gainers and Losers in Water Marketing, Univ. of Calif. Agricultural Issues Center (1994)

"The Constitution, Property Rights and the Future of Water Law", Western Water Policy Project Discussion Series Paper No. 2, Natural Resources Law Center, University of Colorado, School of Law (1990)

"Keeping Special Places Special: McCarthy-Kennicott and the Wrangell-St. Elias National Park", Wrangell Mountain Center/McCarthy Kennicott Historical Museum, McCarthy, Alaska, Nov.) (1990)

"Will the National Parks Survive?", The University of Chicago Magazine, vol. 75, No. 3 (Spring), at 16 (1983)

"An American Perspective (on Parks)", Views of the Green: Presentations from New Directions for the Conservation of Parks, an International Working Conference, Luneburger Heide and Bayerischer Wald, Germany, June, at 4-38 (1983)

"Tourisme industrialise aux Etats-Unis: une menace pour le paysage", Civilisations, No. 2 , (Toulouse, France, Universite des sciences sociales) (1982)

"Free Enterprise in the Woods", National History Magazine (June), pp. 14-25 (1982)

"Planning for Discovery: The American Nature Park", Orion Nature Quarterly (Autumn) (1982)

"Off the Beaten Path in France", The New York Times, (Sunday, Feb. 28), pp. 9-11 (1982)

"Profiting From Parks: None of Watt's Business", 13 High Country News, No. 20, October 16 (1981)

"MEPA Ten Years Later", Michigan Environs, Magazine of the West Michigan Environmental Action Council, v. 1, No. 5 (Nov./Dec.) (1980)

"Pigeon River: A Victory (so far) for the Public Trust", Detroit Free Press, Wed., Aug. 22, p. 13A (1979)

"Protection of the Environment: The Second Decade", The Asahi Journal (in Japanese), June (1979)

"Oregon Supreme Court Abdicates Role in Tideland Fills Ruling", The Oregonian, Portland, p. B-7, May 22 (1979)

"Le Petit Poisson Contre le Grand Barrage Devant La Cour Supreme des Etats-Unis", Revue Juridique de l'Environment 368, No. 4 (1978)

"Recreation Policy on the Public Lands", The Horace M. Albright Conservation Lectureship, XVII, Univ. of Calif., College of Natural Resources, Dept. of Forestry and Resources Management (1978)

Comment on , Massachusetts Institute of Technology, MIT Press Approaches to Controlling Air Pollution (1976)

"America's National Parks, Their Principles, Purposes and Prospects", National History Special Supplement, Oct. (1976)

"Environmental Action: A Passing Fad?", Natural History, June/July (1976)

"Symposium on American Environmental Law", The Jurist, No. 607 March (1976)

"The Michigan Environmental Protection Act", The Michigan Riparian, July (1975)

"Environmental Law--The U.S. Experience", Canada's Environment: The Law on Trial, Proceedings of an Environmental Law Conference, The Manitoba Institute of Continuing Legal Education and the Agassiz Centre for Water Studies (1973)

"Heal the Environment?: Apply a Compress of Cold Cash!", The Student Lawyer, March (1973)

"Legal Strategies for Environmental Quality Decisions", Environmental Quality Analysis: Theory and Method in the Social Sciences, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press (1972)

"Environment and the Bureaucracy", The New Republic, June 19 (1971)

"Emerging Legal Strategies: Judicial Intervention", Annals of the American Academy of Political Science, May (1970)

"Legal Redress of Environmental Disruption: The Role of Courts", Architectural Forum, , May (1970)

"Environment in the Courtroom", Saturday Review, Oct. 3 (1970)

"Legal Redress of Environmental Disruption in the United States: The Role of Courts", paper delivered at the International Sumposium on Environmental Disruption in the Modern World International Social Science Council, Tokyo Japan (1970)

"Law and Justice", Public Affairs Committee, Pamphlet No. 433, April (1969)

"The Law is Never Blind", The Lutheran Standard, American Lutheran Church, Minneapolis, MN, Jan. 7 (1969)

"Civil Disobedience: The Law is Never Blind", Saturday Review, 22, September 28, (1968)

"Dissent", Detroit News Sunday Magazine, June 8 (1967)

"The University, Corporations and the War", The Writ, 9:3 The Writ 1, Boalt Hall, School of Law, University of California, Dec. (1967)


"Water Transfers", The UC/AIC Quarterly, Vol. 7, No. 1 (1993)


Wolves and Human Communities, Chap. 10, Wash., DC, Island Press (2001)

Environmental Law and Regulation, Common Law Common Values Common Rights: Essays on Our Common Heritage by Distinguished British and American Authors (2000)

"Legal and Policy Challenges of Environmental Restoration", Wolves and Human Communities, Washington, DC, Island Press, pp. 110-25 (2000)

Causes of Land Cover Change from a Legal Perspective, Ecological and Social Dimensions of Global Change, Inst. of Int'l. Studies, Univ. Calif. Berkeley (1994)

Community Rights and the Privatization of Water, Sharing Scarcity: Gainers and Losers in Water Marketing , University of California Agricultural Issues Center (1994)

"Ecosystems and Property Rights in Greater Yellowstone: The Legal System in Transition", The Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, New Haven, Yale University Press (1992)

Preface, Our Common Lands, Defending the National Parks, Covelo, CA, Island Press (1988)

"A Rain of Troubles: The Need for a New Perspective on Park Protection", Parks in British Columbia , (Vancover, Univ. of British Columbia Dept. of Forest Res. Mgmt., Aug.) (1985)

Preface to Wilderness Preservation: A Guide to Wilderness Selection on the BLM Lands, Stanford, Stanford Env. Law Soc. (1985)

The Claim for Retention of the Public Lands, Rethinking the Public Lands, (Wash., D.D., Resources for the Future) (1984)

"The Claim for Retention of the Public Lands", Rethinking the Public Lands, Baltimore, Johns Hopkins Press (1984)

"The Claim for Retention of the Public Lands", Rethinking the Public Lands, Wash., D.C., Resources for the Future (1984)

"The Compromises Called For", National Parks in Crisis, Washington, DC, NPCA (1982)

"Public Rights in Public Resources: The Citizen's Role in Conservation and Development", Contemporary Developments in Water Law, Center for Research in Water Resources, Univ. of Texas (1970)

"The Search for Environmental Quality: The Role of the Courts", The Environmental Crisis: Man's Struggle to Live with Himself, Yale University Press (1970)

"Federal Reclamation Law", II Waters and Water Rights, Chap. 8, Allen Smith Co. (1967)