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Smith, Andrea. “Beyond the Politics of Inclusion:Violence Against Women of Color and Human Rights.” Meridians: Feminism, Race, Transnationalism 4, no. 2 (April 2004): 120–24.


In this brief paper, Andrea Smith applies an intersectional lens to violence against women of color, arguing for a human rights approach to facilitate change. She notes an existing “politics of inclusion” where predominantly white, anti- gender violence-organizations have reached out to include women of color, expecting them to adopt the existing framework. Rather, Smith calls for a human rights approach that recognizes the role of the state in perpetrating violence against women of color as part of securing white supremacy and colonial power. She highlights two organizations, American Indian Boarding School Health Project and International Human Rights Association of American Minorities, that engage in anti-violence work while also working to secure government resources to help violence survivors and end cycles of state violence. Providing an alternative perspective on gender violence, Smith breaks down the myth of “stranger danger.” Instead the author highlights that home – both the private home and the national home of the U.S. –has never been safe for women and people of color. Only by understanding and acknowledging a lack of protection on the home front can advocacy organizations create change. This article will appeal to activists and scholars, women of color, and their allies to support the struggle for human rights in the U.S. for minority groups. 


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Human rights   Race/ethnicity: European American/white