1998 Tsuneo Matsumoto.

Professor of Law, Faculty of Law, Hitotsubashi University, Tokyo, Japan. LLB Kyoto, 1974; LLM Kyoto, 1976.

1. See HLMUSHL MINJI-KYOKU, DENSHI TORIHIKI HLSEI NI KANSURU KENKYjKAI (SEIDO KANKEI SHO-IINKAI) HLKOKUSHO [MINISTRY OF JUSTICE, CIVIL AFFAIRS BUREAU, RESEARCH GROUP REPORT ON LAW RELATING TO ELECTRONIC TRANSACTIONS (SUBCOMMITTEE ON SYSTEMS)] (Mar. 1998) reprinted in 1138 JURISUTO 14 (1998).

2. See generally CHITEKI ZAISAN KENKYjSHO, DATABASE NO HLTEKI HOGO NO ARIKATA NI KANSURU CHOSA KENKYj HOKOKUSHO [INSTITUTE FOR INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY, RESEARCH REPORT ON LEGAL PROTECTION OF DATABASES] (1998).

3. See, e.g., Seiji Nakajima, Shrinkwrap Keiyaku no YkkMsei [Enforceability of Shrink Wrap Contracts], (pts. 1 & 2), 634 NBL 22 (1998), 637 NBL 53 (1998); Hideaki Serizawa, ProCD v. Zeidenberg no Bunseki [An Analysis of ProCD v. Zeidenberg], 61 HOGAKU 189 (1997); Hiroo Sono, JMhM Torihiki ni Okeru Keiyaku HMri no Kakuritsu ni Mukete (Chkkan HMkoku) [Toward Principles of Contract in Information Transactions (an Interim Report)], (pts. 1 & 2), 626 NBL 24 (1997), 627 NBL 32 (1997).

4. See Japan Electronic Industry Development Association, Statistics of Software (Export/Import), (visited Sept. 30, 1998) <http://www.jeida.or.jp/toukei/software/1997/soft1997.html> (statistics only in Japanese); Japan Electronic Industry Development Association, Statistics of Software (Export/Import), (visited Sept. 30, 1998) <http://www.jeida.or.jp/toukei/software/soft1.gif> (statistics in Japanese and English).

5. See NOBUHIRO NAKAYAMA, SOFTWARE NO HLTEKI HOGO (SHIN-BAN) [LEGAL PROTECTION OF SOFTWARE] 78 (2d ed. 1988); YOSHIYUKI TAMURA, CHOSAKUKEN HL [TEXTBOOK ON COPYRIGHT LAW] 188 (1998).

6. See Article 47bis of the Copyright Law of Japan (1985).

7. See KOKUMIN SEIKATSU SHINGIKAI SHOHISHA SEISAKU BUKAI, (SHLHISHA KEIYAKU HL (KASHL) NO GUTAITEKI NAIYL NI TSUITE) [INTERIM REPORT BY THE CONSUMER POLICY COMMITTEE OF THE SOCIAL POLICY COUNCIL, THE CONCRETE CONTENTS OF CONSUMER CONTRACTS LAW (TENTATIVE NAME)] (1998).

8. See 1993 O.J. (L 95) 29.

9. Article 91 of the Civil Code provides that if the parties to a juristic act have declared an intention which differs from any provisions of laws or ordinances that are not concerned with public policy, such intention shall prevail.

10. See, e.g., SHLJI KAWAKAMI, YAKKAN KISEI NO HLRI [THE THEORIES FOR CONTROL OF STANDARDIZED CONTRACTS] 383 (1988).

11. See id. at 386-87.

12. See generally Jason F. Cohen, Note, The Japanese Product Liability Law: Sending a Pro-Consumer Tsunami Through Japan's Corporate and Judicial Worlds, 21 FORDHAM INT'L L.J. 108, 112-13 (1997) (discussing the history of Japanese product liability protection in the context of the Japanese legal system and culture); Wendy A. Green, Comment, Japan's New Product Liability Law: Making Strides or Business as Usual?, 9 TRANSNAT'L LAW. 543, 544-57 (1996) (discussing the development of product liability law in Japan).