1998 Peter Lyman.

Peter Lyman is a Professor in U.C. Berkeley's School of Information Management and Systems (SIMS) and a former University Librarian.

1. Many social scientists believe that it is too soon to know if there is a discontinuity in subject or method, and warn that focusing upon "social impacts of technology" encourages theoretical modeling of the future, distracting from empirical research. See, e.g., Paul Attewell, Research on Information Technology Impacts, in FOSTERING RESEARCH ON THE ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL IMPACTS OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY 133, 134 (The National Research Council, 1998); Claude S. Fischer, Computer Mediated Communications, in FOSTERING RESEARCH ON THE ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL IMPACTS OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY 142, 143 (The National Research Council, 1998).

2. Karen A. Cerulo, Reframing Sociological Concepts for a Brave New (Virtual?) World, 67:1 SOCIOLOGICAL INQUIRY 48, 55 (1997).

3. Id.

4. Id. at 49.

5. See SHERRY TURKLE, THE SECOND SELF 24 (1984); Sherry Turkle, Artificial Intelligence and Psychoanalysis: A New Alliance, 117:1 DAEDALUS 241, 245 (1988); SHERRY TURKLE, LIFE ON THE SCREEN: IDENTITY IN THE AGE OF THE INTERNET 177-209 (1995).

6. Bernard Lietaer, The Social Impact of Electronic Money: A Challenge to the European Union? A REPORT TO THE EUROPEAN COMMISSION'S FORWARD STUDIES UNIT (1998) (on file with author).

7. Michael Froomkin, Article 2B as Legal Software for Electronic Contracting-Operating System or Trojan Horse?, 13 BERKELEY TECH. L.J. * (1998).

8. See Michael Borrus & Francois Bar, The Future of Networking, BRIE-Berkeley Roundtable on International Economy, Research Paper, March 16, 1993 available to be ordered at <http://brie.berkeley.edu/BRIE/pubs/wp/index.html>) (visited Nov. 8, 1998).

9. See United States Department of Commerce, The Emerging Digital Economy (1998).

10. For a review of the growth and dynamics of Internet information, see Peter Lyman and Brewster Kahle, Archiving Digital Cultural Artifacts, D-lib (July-August 1998) (visited Nov. 7, 1998) <http://www.dlib.org/dlib/july98/07lyman.html>. Because online information is not archived, and Web sites often disappear, printed citations to Web page sources often outlast the digital documents cited. However, the Internet Archive has established a freely accessible permanent archive of all documents on the public parts of the World Wide Web (that is, those that do not prohibit entry by robot web crawlers). See Alexa Internet (visited Nov. 29, 1998) <http://www.Alexa.com>.

11. UCC 2B 102(a)(24), (a)(26) (Aug, 1, 1998 Draft).

12. Michele C. Kane, When is a Computer Program not a Computer Program: The Perplexing World Created by Article 2B, 13 BERKELEY TECH. L.J. * (1998).

13. Jane C. Ginsburg, Authors as "Licensors" of "Informational Property Rights" Under Article 2B, 13 BERKELEY TECH. L.J. * (1998).

14. Jessica Litman, The Tales that Article 2B Tells, 13 BERKELEY TECH. L.J. *, * (1998).

15. MANUEL CASTELLS, THE RISE OF THE NETWORK SOCIETY (1996).

16. DANIEL BELL, THE COMING OF POST-INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY (1973).

17.Castells, supra note 15, at 61.

18. Historical economics literature discusses the utility of fictions that treat land, labor and money as commodities. See, e.g., KARL POLANYI, THE GREAT TRANSFORMATION 68-76 (1944).

19. See FERNAND BRAUDEL, THE STRUCTURES OF EVERYDAY LIFE 400-01 (1981). If the copyright industry has turned to the information highway metaphor to analyze the network, the academic community has turned to the digital library metaphor, using the history of the book to gain perspective on the current situation. See, e.g., ELIZABETH EISENSTEIN, THE PRINTING PRESS AS AN AGENT OF CHANGE 453-520 (1979).

20. See Castells, supra note 15, at 61. See also MANUEL CASTELLS, THE POWER OF IDENTITY at 5-67 (1997).

21. Julie Cohen, Copyright and the Jurisprudence of Self-Help, 13 BERKELEY TECH. L.J. *, * (1998) (quoting Lawrence Lessig, The Zones of Cyberspace, 48 STANFORD L. REV. 1403, 1433 (1996)).

22. Pam Samuelson, Encoding the Law into Digital Libraries, 41 COMMUNICATIONS OF THE ACM 13, 13-14 (1998).

23. Geoff Cooper & Steve Woolgar, Software is Society made Malleable: The Importance of Conceptions of Audience in Software and Research Practice, Brunel University, Uxbridge Middlesex, United Kingdom: The Program on Information and Communication Technologies, Policy Research Paper No. 25, 1993, at 2 (on file with author).

24. Steve Woolgar, Configuring the User: the Case of Usability Trials, in A SOCIOLOGY OF MONSTERS: ESSAYS ON POWER, TECHNOLOGY AND DOMINATION 59 (1991). See also Bruno Latour, Technology is Society Made Durable, in A SOCIOLOGY OF MONSTERS: ESSAYS ON POWER, TECHNOLOGY AND DOMINATION 103-31 (1991).

25. Erik Brynjolfsson, The Productivity Paradox of Information Technology: Review and Assessment, 36 COMMUNICATIONS OF THE ACM 67, 67-77 (1993).

26. Don Cohen, Toward a Knowledge Context, 40 CALIFORNIA MANAGEMENT REVIEW 22, 23 (1998).

27. JEAN LAVE & ETIENNE WENGER, SITUATED LEARNING: LEGITIMATE PERIPHERAL PARTICIPATION 94-99 (1991).

28. Bernardo A. Huberman & Tad Hogg, Communities of Practice: Performance and Evolution, 1 COMPUTATIONAL AND MATHEMATICAL ORGANIZATION THEORY 73, 73-74 (1995).

29. Cohen, supra note 26, at 37 (italics added).

30. Walter W. Powell, Learning from Collaboration: Knowledge and Networks in the Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Industries, 40 CALIFORNIA MANAGEMENT REVIEW 228, 228-240 (1998); see also Mario Biagioli, The Instability of Authorship: Credit and Responsibility in Contemporary Biomedicine, 12 FASEB JOURNAL 3, 3-4 (1998).

31. See, e.g, William Gardner & Joseph Rosenbaum, Intellectual Property: Database Protection and Access to Information, 281 SCIENCE MAGAZINE, Aug. 7, 1998, at 786-787.

32. On the application of social network theory to virtual communities, see Barry Wellman & Milena Gulia, Net Surfers Don't Ride Alone: Virtual Communities as Communities, in COMMUNITIES IN CYBERSPACE (Peter Kollock & Marc Smith, eds.) (forthcoming 1999) available at <http://www.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman/links/index.html> (visited Oct. 29, 1998).

33. Mary S. Furlong, An Electronic Community for Older Adults: The SeniorNet Network, 39 JOURNAL OF COMMUNICATION 145, 149 (1989).

34. Castells, supra note 15, at 62.

35. Michael Borrus & John Zysman, Globalization with Borders: The Rise of Wintelism as the Future of Global Competition, 4 INDUSTRY AND INNOVATION 141(1997).

36. Id. at 141-42.

37. Castells, supra note 15, at 243.

38. Id. On the urban milieu of innovation, see generally MANUEL CASTELLS, THE INFORMATIONAL CITY: INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY, ECONOMIC RESTRUCTURING AND THE URBAN-REGIONAL PROCESS (1989) (discussing the theoretical notion of urban milieu as conducive to or oppressive of innovation); ANNALEE SAXENIAN, REGIONAL ADVANTAGE (1994) (applying the notion that urban milieu and innovation are connected by comparing the business and social networks that contributed to innovation in the Silicon Valley area to those in Boston's less successful "Route 128" region).

39. Castells, supra note 15, at 378-79.

40. Id. at 92 (emphasis added).

41. See generally BORDERS IN CYBERSPACE: INFORMATION POLICY AND THE GLOBAL INFORMATION INFRASTRUCTURE (Brian Kahin & Charles Nesson, eds. 1997).

42. Martin Kenney & James Curry, The Internet, New Firm Formation, and Enterprise Patterns, The International Workshop on Business Venture Creation and New Human Resource Management Strategies in Japan, Europe and the U.S. Tokyo, October 1-2, 1998 46 HITOTSUBUSHI BUSINESS REVIEW (forthcoming 1998) (manuscript at 6, on file with author).

43. On virtual communities and civil society, see Mary E. Virnoche and Gary T. Marx, "Only connect"-E.M. Forster in an Age of Electronic Communication: Computer-Mediated Association and Community Networks, 67 SOCIOLOGICAL INQUIRY 85, 86-88 (1997).

44. JOHN HAGEL III & ARTHUR G. ARMSTRONG, NETGAIN: EXPANDING MARKETS THROUGH VIRTUAL COMMUNITIES 187 (1997).

45. Alfred D. Chandler, Paths of Learning, Address at the Haas School of Business at the University of California, Berkeley Conference on Knowledge Creation and Transfer: The Second Annual UC Berkeley Forum on Knowledge and the Firm (Sept. 25, 1998) (visited Oct. 29, 1998) <http://www.haas.berkeley.edu/~imio/conference>. "Paths of Learning" will be the title of Professor Chandler's forthcoming book.

46. Id.

47. Peter Lyman, What is a Digital Library? Technology, Intellectual Property and the Public Interest, 125 DAEDALUS 1, 26-28 (1996).

48. Francois Bar & Emily M. Murase, Charting Cyberspace: A U.S.-European-Japanese Blueprint for Electronic Commerce, in TRANSATLANTIC TRADE COOPERATION IN ASIA: SECTORS, ISSUES AND MODALITIES 5 (Richard Steinberg & Bruce Stokes eds.) (forthcoming 1998).

49. Id.

50. Id. at 7-8.

51. John Leslie King & Kenneth L. Kraemer, Computer and Communication Technologies: Impacts on the Organization of Enterprise and the Establishment and Maintenance of Civil Society, FOSTERING RESEARCH ON THE ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL IMPACTS OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY 188, 190-91 (The National Research Council, 1998).

52. Bar & Murase, supra note 47, at 8.

53.Id.

54. Id. at 27.

55. Cohen, supra note 21, at *.

56. Bar & Murase, supra note 47, at 9.

57. Id.