Childhood in America

Mary Ann Mason & Paula Fass, Editors
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Introduction: Childhood in America: Past and Present
Paula S. Fass and Mary Ann Mason

PART 1. Childbirth and Infancy -- 9

  1. Before the Birth of One of Her Children -- 11
    Anne Bradstreet
  2. Women as Childbearers, 1650-1750 -- 12
    Catherine M. Scholten
  3. Brought to Bed: Childbearing in America -- 16
    Judith Walzer Leavitt
  4. Mothers' Sacred Duty: Breast-Feeding Patterns among Middle- and Upper-Class Women in theAntebellum South -- 20
    Sally McMillen
  5. Reconstructing Motherhood: The La Leche League in Postwar America -- 23
    Lynn Y. Weiner
  6. Amazing Births: Medical History in "Miracle" Births -- 29
    Charles Petit
  7. Woman Gives Birth to Baby Conceived outside the Body -- 32
    New York Times
  8. The Eggs, Embryos, and I -- 35
    Melissa Moore Bodin
  9. The Egg Women -- 38
    Margaret Talbot
  10. Choosing Childlessness -- 41
    Newsweek
  11. Thoughts on Child Rearing -- 44
    Anne Bradstreet
  12. The Use of Reason in Child Rearing -- 45
    John Locke
  13. Toys -- 49
    Maria Edgeworth
  14. The Cry -- 52
    L. Emmett Holt
  15. Too Much Mother Love -- 54
    John B. Watson
  16. The Mother-Child Dyad Revisited: Perceptions of Mothers and Children in Twentieth-Century Child-Rearing Manuals -- 56
    Nancy Pottishman Weiss
  17. Child Science and the Rise of the Experts
    Joseph M. Hawes
  18. The Construction of Reality in the Child -- 64
    Jean Piaget
  19. Understanding the Infant -- 67
    Jerome Kagan
  20. Mothers and Fathers Working and Rearing Children -- 72
    T. Berry Brazelton

    PART 2. Boys and Girls -- 77

  21. In Reference to Her Children, 23 June, 1659 -- 79
    Anne Bradstreet
  22. Breeching Little Frank -- 82
    A. North
  23. Suits and Frocks -- 83
    Karin Culvert
  24. American Girlhood in the Nineteenth Century -- 87
    Anne Scott MacLeod
  25. Nineteenth-Century Boys' Literature -- 90
    Daniel T. Rodgers
  26. Briar Rose -- 95
    The Brothers Grimm
  27. Little Women -- 98
    Louisa May Alcott
  28. Nancy Drew and the Secret of the Old Clock -- 100
    Carolyn Keene
  29. The Sexual Life of the Child -- 102
    Sigmund Freud
  30. Feminine Psychology -- 104
    Karen Homey
  31. Male and Female: Sex and Temperament -- 108
    Margaret Mead
  32. Infantile Sexuality -- 110
    Erik H. Erikson
  33. Moral Reasoning in Girls and Boys -- 116
    Carol Gilligan
  34. How Schools Shortchange Girls -- 119
    American Association of University Women Report

    P A R T 3. Adolescence and Youth -- 123

  35. Courtship and Gender Differences -- 125
    Ellen K. Rothman
  36. Children's Voices from the Civil War -- 129
    Emmy E. Werner
  37. Adolescence in Historical Perspective -- 132
    John Demos and Virginia Demos
  38. The Physiology and Psychology of Adolescence -- 139
    G. Stanley Hall
  39. Compulsory Schooling and Parent-Adolescent Relations -- 142
    Stephen A. Lassonde
  40. The Natural History of the Gang --146
    Frederic M. Thrasher
  41. Adolescent Girls in Samoa and America -- 149
    Margaret Mead
  42. Identity, Youth, and Crisis -- 153
    Erik H. Erikson
  43. Anorexia Nervosa in the 1980's -- 161
    Joan Jacobs Brumberg
  44. Reviving Ophelia: Saving the Selves of Adolescent Girls -- 166
    Mary Pipher
  45. Families Started by Teenagers -- 169
    Jane Mauldon
  46. Why the Young Kill -- 177
    Sharon Begley
  47. Petting -- 181
    F. Scott Fitzgerald
  48. The Member of the Wedding -- 183
    Carson McCullers
  49. Manchild in the Promised Land -- 187
    Claude Brown
  50. Becoming a Man: Half a Life Story -- 191
    Paul Monette
  51. Adulthood? Later, Dude! -- 196
    D. James Romero

    PART 4. Discipline -- 201

  52. Family Life in Plymouth Colony -- 203
    John Demos
  53. Protecting Children from Abusing Masters -- 206
    Colonial Documents
  54. Inculcating Self-Discipline -- 208
    John Locke
  55. Introducing Children into the Social Order -- 211
    Carl N. Degler
  56. A Milder and Warmer Family Government -- 216
    Horace Bushnell
  57. Learning Self-Control -- 218
    Louisa May Alcott
  58. The Life of a Slave Child -- 221
    James W. C. Pennington
  59. Managing Young Children -- 223
    Benjamin Spock
  60. Corporal Punishment -- 227
    North Carolina Middle District Court
  61. Cracking Down on Kids -- 229
    Annette Fuentes

    PART 5. Working Children -- 235

  62. Fathers/Masters: Children/Servants -- 237
    Mary Ann Mason
  63. Children's Involuntary Labor -- 241
    Colonial Documents
  64. Apprentices, Servants, and Child Labor -- 244
    Colonial Documents
  65. Children and Manufacture's
    Alexander Hamilton
  66. Choosing a Trade -- 249
    Benjamin Franklin
  67. Children in the Mills -- 251
    August Kohn
  68. Children at Work in the City -- 253
    David Nasaw
  69. A Child Worker in the Garment Industry -- 256
    Rose Cohen
  70. The Changing Social Value of Children -- 260
    Viviana A. Zelizer
  71. Coming of Age in Mississippi -- 263
    Anne Moody
  72. Children and the New Deal -- 265
    Paula S. Fass
  73. American Children in the Second World War -- 269
    Robert William Kirk
  74. Child Labor and the Law -- 272
    U.S. Supreme Court
  75. Working Children in Contemporary Chinatown -- 275
    Samuel G. Freedman

    PART 6. Learning -- 281

  76. Education and the Concept of Childhood -- 283
    Philippe Aries
  77. Family Instruction in Early Massachusetts -- 286
    Colonial Document
  78. A Puritan Education -- 288
    Edmund S. Morgan
  79. Emile -- 292
    Jean-Jacques Rousseau
  80. Moral Education for Citizenship -- 294
    Carl F. Kaestle
  81. The Education of Mary Anna Longstreth -- 296
    Harvey J. Gruff
  82. Tom Sawyer's Examination Day -- 298
    Mark Twain
  83. The Child and the Curriculum -- 303
    John Dewey
  84. Testing the IQ of Children -- 307
    Paula S. Fass
  85. For the Love of Books -- 313
    Richard Wright
  86. School Desegregation -- 318
    U.S. Supreme Court
  87. Education in the Post-Sputnik Era -- 321
    Diane Ravitch
  88. Children of Crisis -- 326
    Robert Coles
  89. Hunger of Memory: The Education of Richard Rodriguez -- 331
    Richard Rodriguez
  90. The Quest for Clarity -- 333
    Jerome S. Bruner
  91. Children and the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act -- 337
    Albert Shanker
  92. The Theory of Multiple Intelligences -- 339
    Hozvard Gardner
  93. Mother's Little Helper: Ritalin and Attention Deficit Disorder -- 243
    LynNell Hancock, Pat Wingert, Mary Hager, Claudia Kalb, Karen Springen, and Dante Chinni

    PART 7. Children without Parents -- 347

  94. Kidnapping and White Servitude -- 349
    Abbot Emerson Smith
  95. Orphans' Court -- 352
    Lois Green Cumin
  96. Abraham Lincoln and Sarah Bush Lincoln -- 355
    David Herbert Donald
  97. A Childhood in Slavery -- 357
    Frederick Douglass
  98. Placing Orphan Children with Farm Families -- 359
    Charles Loring Brace and His Critics
  99. Huckleberry Finn -- 367
    Mark Twain
  100. Shadow of the Plantation: Separation and Adoption -- 371
    Charles S. Johnson
  101. Surviving the Breakup: How Children Respond to Divorce -- 374
    Judith S. Wallerstein and Joan Berlin Kelly
  102. Solomon's Children: The New Biologism, Psychological Parenthood, Attachment Theory, and the Best Interests Standard -- 381
    Arlene Skolnick
  103. Fit to Be a Parent? -- 387
    Mary Ann Mason
  104. Lesbian Parents in Custody Disputes -- 391
    California Court of Appeal
  105. Surrogacy and Child Custody -- 395
    California Supreme Court
  106. Teenage Voices from Foster Care -- 399
    Autobiographical Documents
  107. Foster Care and the Politics of Compassion -- 404
    Nanette Schomer
  108. Orphanage Revival Gains Ground -- 410
    Katharine Q. Seelye

    PART 8. The Vulnerable Child -- 415

  109. Waifs of the City's Slums -- 417
    Jacob A. Riis
  110. Preserving the Home -- 422
    Conference Document
  111. The Mothers' Aid Movement -- 424
    Documents from the Child Welfare Movement
  112. Infant Mortality -- 427
    Charles R. King
  113. Polio -- 432
    U.S. News & World Report
  114. "Welcome to Willowbrook" -- 436
    Geraldo Rivera
  115. Kidnapping in Contemporary America -- 438
    Paula S. Fass
  116. The Last Frontier in Child Abuse -- 444
    Suzanne M. Sgroi
  117. By Silence Betrayed: The Sexual Abuse of Children in America -- 449
    John Crewdson
  118. Miscounting Social Ills -- 453
    Neil Gilbert
  119. Psychiatric Hospitals for Juveniles? -- 456
    Sylvia Ann Hewlett
  120. Couple Held in Beating of Daughter -- 459
    Todd S. Purdum
  121. A Glimpse into a Hell for Helpless Infants -- 462
    New York Times
  122. An Infant's Death, an Ancient "Why?" -- 466
    Jan Hoffman
  123. Media Violence and Children -- 469
    Hillary Rodham Clinton
  124. A Teenage Voice from Foster Care -- 473
    Autobiographical Document

    PART 9. Sexuality -- 479

  125. The Turn of the Screw -- 481
    Henry James
  126. Child-Loving: The Erotic Child and Victorian Culture -- 488
    James R. Kincaid
  127. Polymorphous Perversity -- 491
    Sigmund Freud
  128. Delinquent Daughters: The Age-of-Consent Campaign -- 494
    Mary E. Odem
  129. Coming of Age in Samoa -- 499
    Margaret Mead
  130. Preadolescent Sexuality -- 500
    Kinsey Institute for Sex Research
  131. Lolita -- 511
    Vladimir Nabokov
  132. The Disappearance of Childhood: The Total Disclosure Medium -- 515
    Neil Postman
  133. The Assault on Truth: Freud's Suppression of the Seduction Theory -- 518
    Jeffrey Moussaieff Masson
  134. The Unraveling of a Monstrous Secret -- 521
    Marla Williams and Dee Norton
  135. On Prison Computer, Files to Make Parents Shiver -- 524
    Nina Bernstein
  136. The Politics of Parental Notification -- 530
    Mans A. Vinovskis

    PART 10. The Child and the State -- 535

  137. The Family in the Social Order -- 537
    Colonial Document
  138. The Child-Saving Movement -- 539
    Jacob A. Riis
  139. The Progressive-Era Transformation of Child Protection,1900-1920 -- 543
    Linda Gordon
  140. The State as Superparent -- 549
    Mary Ann Mason
  141. The Children's Bureau -- 555
    Government Documents
  142. The Establishment of Juvenile Courts -- 559
    Susan Tiffin
  143. Juvenile Court and the Artistry of Approach -- 566
    Ben B. Lindsey and Rube Borough
  144. The Children's Charter -- 570
    White House Conference Document
  145. The First Amendment in School -- 573
    U.S. Supreme Court
  146. Juveniles' Right to Due Process -- 578
    U.S. Supreme Court
  147. Punishing Very Young Criminals -- 585
    Peter Fimnite
  148. Vote for Eighteen-Year-Olds: What Justices Said on Both Sides -- 587
    U.S. News & World Report
  149. The Right to Vote -- 591
    U.S. Constitution
  150. Now That the Voting Age Is Lower... -- 592
    U.S. News & World Report
  151. Contraception -- 594
    U.S. Supreme Court
  152. Abortion -- 596
    U.S. Supreme Court
  153. Mental Health and the Rights of the Child -- 599
    U.S. Supreme Court
  154. Visitation Rights -- 603
    Illinois Appellate Court
  155. A Voice for the Child? -- 609
    Mary Ann Mason
  156. United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child -- 612
    U.N. Document

    PART 11. The Child's World -- 617


  157. The Material Culture of Early Childhood: The Upright Child -- 619
    Kanin Culvert
  158. My Life in the South -- 625
    Jacob Stroyer
  159. A Russian Jewish Girlhood on the Lower East Side -- 627
    Rose Cohen
  160. Quiet Odyssey: A Pioneer Korean Woman in America -- 632
    Mary Paik Lee
  161. Call It Sleep -- 637
    Henry Roth
  162. Young Lonigan -- 642
    James T. Farrell
  163. Growing Up Native American: The Language We Know -- 646
    Simon Ortiz
  164. Down These Mean Streets -- 649
    Pin Thomas
  165. I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings -- 653
    Maya Angelou
  166. China Boy -- 657
    Gus Lee
  167. Talking to High Monks in the Snow: An Asian American Odyssey -- 663
    Lydia Yuni Minatoya
  168. The Adventures of Tom Sawyer -- 666
    Mark Twain
  169. The Days Gone By -- 669
    James Whitcomb Riley
  170. The Wizard of Oz -- 670
    L. Frank Baum
  171. Anne of Green Gables -- 673
    L. M. Montgomery
  172. The Sneetches -- 676
    Dr. Seuss
  173. Snozzcumbers -- 679
    Roald Dahl
  174. American Children and Their Books -- 684
    Gillian Avery
  175. Children in Fiction and Fact -- 690
    Anne Scott MacLeod
  176. Kids' Stuff: Toys and the Changing World of American Childhood -- 694
    Gary Cross
  177. What Makes Nick Tick: Nickelodeon Is a Sensibility, a World, an All-Empowering Club. It's CNN for Children -- 697
    Don Steinberg
  178. Children's Literary Voices -- 700
    Merlyn's Pen

Sources 704
Index 715
About the Editors 725